A weakly conducting fluid passes out of a cylindrical orifice raised to high electric potential. In response to the electrical stresses the fluid surface adopts a conical shape, from whose apex a thin, charged jet emerges. This jet eventually breaks up into small droplets, but is still stable in the picture. The drop diameter is much smaller than that of the orifice so that a very fine spray is produced. Note the steady circulation within the cone in the photograph.

(Photograph taken by I. Hayati, Imperial College London)

For more detail see "The electrohydrodynamic-cone jet at high Reynolds number." Journal of Aerosol Science 25, pages 1037-1047, by A. J. Mestel and also "Mechanism of stable jet formation in electrohydrodynamic atomization." Nature 319, pages 41-43 by I. Hayati, A.I. Bailey and Th. F. Tadros.

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